Rwanda is located in the tropics (latitude: 1°51'S - 2°51'S and Longitude 28°52'E - 30°55'E).
Despite being located in the tropics, Rwanda experiences a temperate climate as a result of its high elevation. The Northwestern part is mountainous and volcanic with elevations over 2000m. Elevations reduce towards the central plateau (1500 - 2000m) of Rwanda and then further in the eastern plateau towards the border with Tanzania (less than 1500m). The average temperature for Rwanda is around 20°C and varies with the topography.
The warmest annual average temperatures are found in the eastern low lying (20 - 21°C) and Bugarama Valley (23 - 24°C), and cooler temperatures in higher elevations of the central plateau (17.5 - 19°C) and highlands (less than 17°C). Temperatures vary little throughout the year.
Rwanda experiences a bimodal pattern of rainfall, which is driven primarily by the progression of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The ITCZ follows the annual progression of the sun as it goes to the Northern Summer when the sun crosses the equator around March 21, and the Southern Summer around September 23 each year.
The maximum rainfall seasons occurs over March, April and May (MAM) and in September, October, November and December (SOND).